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Fig. 2 Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale scores over ...

Fig. 3 Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a total sco...

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Figure 1 Age and Self-Esteem. This figure shows t...

Fig. 1 Structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem S...

Figure 2: Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on the Rosenberg global self-esteem scale. This figure shows that feelings of low self-esteem vary widely between different diagnostic groups. Control patients had the lowest scores (and the highest self-esteem) using this scale. Dual diagnoses patients with Major Depressive Disorder ("MDD") had significantly lower scores, as did patients with a single diagnosis of Eating Disorders, Dysthymia, Drug abuse, and MDD. The differences between groups that reached statistical significance are given in the text.

Image Text (High Precision): Abuse Adjustment Alcohol Anxiety Bipolar Conduct Control Controls Disorder Disorders Drug Dysthymia Eating Esteem Impulse Psychosocial Psychotic Rosenberg Scores Self global stress stressor

Other Images from "Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I – The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis":


Figure 1 Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on...

Figure 2 Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on...

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Abstract

BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders.MethodThe present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales.ResultsThe results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem.ConclusionsBased on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders.


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