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Figure 1: Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. This figure shows that feelings of social adequacy vary widely between different diagnostic groups. Control patients had the highest scores, and the highest self-esteem, with this measure. Dual diagnoses patients with Major Depressive Disorder ("MDD") had significantly lower scores, as did patients with a single diagnosis of Eating Disorders, Dysthymia, and MDD. The differences between groups that reached statistical significance are given in the text.

Image Text (High Precision): Abuse Adequacy Adjustment Alcohol Anxiety Bipolar Conduct Control Controls Disorder Disorders Drug Dysthymia Eating Field Impulse Janis Psychosocial Psychotic Scale Scores Social stress stressor

Other Images from "Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I – The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis":


Figure 1 Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on...

Figure 2 Effect of diagnosis on the mean score on...

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Abstract

BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders.MethodThe present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales.ResultsThe results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem.ConclusionsBased on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders.


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